The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that collective agreements should not be required to join unions. Collective agreements can only require non-members to pay the proven share of dues that unions spend on their representation. Non-members must bear these costs only when they are declared and they can challenge them first. In the past, some states had right-to-work laws, but repealed or struck down them. There are also some counties and municipalities in states without labor rights laws that have passed local laws to prohibit union security agreements. According to Tim Bartik of the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, there are many studies on the impact of right-to-work laws, but they do not coincide. Studies have shown both “some positive effects on employment growth” and no effect.
 Thomas Holmes argues that it is difficult to analyze right-to-work laws by comparing states on the basis of other similarities between the states that have passed those laws. For example, right-to-work states often have a very business-friendly policy, making it difficult to isolate the effects of right-to-work laws.  With regard to the growth of the Southeastern States after world war II, Bartik notes that, although they have right-to-work laws, they have also benefited from “factors such as the widespread use of air conditioning systems and the various modes of transport that have contributed to the decentralization of production”.  The federal government works at the federal level under open-shop rules, but many of its employees are represented by unions. Unions representing professional sportsmen have written contracts that contain certain representation provisions (for example, in the National Football League. B), but their application is limited to “where and when it is legal,” since the Supreme Court has clearly ruled that the application of a right to work is determined by the worker`s “dominant workplace.”  Players of professional sports teams in the States with the right to work are therefore subject to these laws and may not be obliged to pay part of the trade union rights as a condition for maintaining employment.  In states that have enacted right-to-work laws that apply to private employers, although they vary according to state law, most right-to-work laws prohibit unions and employers from entering into contracts that employ only unionized workers for jobs in the contract. This allows workers to obtain union contract benefits without having to pay their share of dues and royalties to the union. Essentially, these states allow workers to join a union if they wish, but employers cannot force workers to join a union as a condition or condition of employment.
In the context of U.S. labour policy, the “right to work” refers to state laws that prohibit union security agreements between employers and unions. Under these laws, workers in unionized enterprises are prohibited from negotiating contracts that require all members who benefit from the union contract to participate in union representation costs.  As of September 2019, there are laws on the right to work exclusively at the state level.